Sira Sooparb, MD
- Comparative Analysis of Urine Cadmium Levels: Evidence from an International Hospital in Southeast Asia
Sira Sooparb1, Wilawan Watewai1, Woraluk Chimwai1, Punyisa Thuekun1 , Krit Pongpirul1-3, Sinn Anuras1 1 Bumrungrad International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand 2 Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand 3 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
Aim: To explore the differences of Cadmium levels across countries, using laboratory data from a large international hospital in Southeast Asia.
Background: Cadmium has long been recognized as a major environmental health threat. With unclear and inadequate environmental regulation, Southeast Asia (SEA) has been increasingly considered high risk of Cadmium toxicity.
Methods: This analysis was based on demographic and laboratory data from Bumrungrad Observational Nephrotoxicity Study (BONS). We identified 462 records of adult individuals from 26 countries with available urine Cadmium level.
Results: The subjects were 52.06 years old on average, 54.76% were female and 59.09% were Thai. Overall average Cadmium level was 1.36 ug/g creatinine (95%CI: 1.22, 1.49). Three quarter of the patients (75.11%) were from five SEA countries with higher mean Cadmium level than that of non-SEA countries (1.42 vs 1.16 ug/g creatinine; p=0.1073). The mean country-specific Cadmium levels were estimated: Thailand 1.47 (95%CI: 0.1,14.3; n=273), Myanmar 1.35 (95%CI: 0.1,5.5; n=55), Cambodia 0.88 (95%CI: 0.1,4.1; n=15), Vietnam 1.2 (95%CI: 0.7,1.9; n=3), and Malaysia 1.2 ug/g creatinine (n=1).
Conclusions: This study reports comparative urine Cadmium levels across countries. The range not only revealed different environmental situations, but also suggested potential environmental toxic determinants of many chronic diseases.