Narongrit Havarungsi, MD
- Preventing Osteoporosis with Lifestyle Changes
Osteoporosis is a disease of deteriorating bone strength in terms of bone density and bone quality that leads to increasing risks for bone fracture. In the aging era, many countries will face the significant problem according to osteoporosis complication, broken bone. To reduce the risk of osteoporosis and its complication, lifestyle modification in order to maintain healthy skeleton should be considered among different age groups and purposes. In maternal, children and adolescents the goal is to achieve the potential for peak bone mass. In the adult group, to avoid premature bone loss and maintain healthy skeleton is the primary intention. And among seniors, the aim is to prevent fragility fracture and treatment of osteoporosis.
A lifestyle change may be done through many ways. The two major parts are nutrition and physical activities including exercise. Others are factors impact on skeletal health such as BMI, alcoholic consumption, smoking, caffeine, and cola beverage. The positive effect preventing osteoporosis is calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, weight bearing to exercise, resistive exercise, balance to exercise, and appropriate BMI. The negative effect is as heavy alcoholic consumption, smoking, caffeine, cola beverage, and high or low BMI.
According to The National Osteoporosis Foundation's position statement of the peak bone mass development and lifestyle factors , the best evidence are available for positive effects of calcium intake and physical activity , especially during the late childhood and per pubertal years- a critical period for bone accretion . Good evidence is also available for a role of vitamin D and dairy consumption.
Future research is needed to more precisely delivering the exercise dosage (volume, intensity, frequency, and duration), studying the interaction between physical activity and diet quality, and to develop a research agenda to better understand other lifestyle factors that are less clearly understood for the purpose of building strong and healthy bones.